Sunday, March 8, 2020
such as Ã¢â¬Å"darkÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"brownÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"muddyÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"grayÃ¢â¬ . The river started clear and blue, but has now become dark and muddy. This symbolizes the emotions of the people as the troops march and fight. Progressing seasons of nature symbolize the progressing sadness of the people also. As summer leaves and autumn comes mud is splashed over everything and covers the bright beauty of it all. Even the muddy capes of soldiers show how weary and bogged down they are. Ã¢â¬Å"Six months gone with childÃ¢â¬ is an example of metonymy used to show how weary and vulnerable the troops are. Terms such as Ã¢â¬Å"motor carÃ¢â¬ suggest that the time period is around the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. Mentioning of a King rules out the place being the United States. Still many questions go unanswered making the reader want to read farther (which battle?, which King?) Ã¢â¬Å"Winter and permanent rainÃ¢â¬ bring dreary times and cholera makes these times worse. There is a small chance of hope since only seven thousand troops died. This is ironic because seven thousand is usually thought of as a lot; however, Hemingway wants readers to understand this is small compared to the... Free Essays on A Farewell To Arms Free Essays on A Farewell To Arms A Farewell To Arms All fiction is autobiographical, no matter how obscure from the author's experience it may be, marks of their life can be detected in any of their tales. A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway is based largely on Hemingway's own personal experiences. The main character of the novel, Frederic Henry, experiences many of the same situations that Hemingway lived. Some of these similarities are exact, while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome. Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. Hemingway worked as a reporter for the Kansas City Star after graduating from high school in 1917. During World War I, he served as an ambulance driver in the Italian infantry and was wounded just before his 19th birthday. Hospitalized, Hemingway fell in love with an older nurse. Later, while working in Paris as a correspondent for the Toronto Star, he became involved with the expatriate literary and artistic circle surrounding Gertrude Stein. During the Spanish Civil War, Hemingway served as a correspondent on the loyalist side. He fought in World War II and then settled in Cuba in 1945. In 1954, Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. After his expulsion from Cuba by the Castro regime, he moved to Idaho. In his life, Hemingway married four times and wrote numerous essays, short stories and novels. The effects of Hemingway's lifelong depressions, illnesses and accidents caught up with him. In July 1961, he committed suicide in Ketchum, Idaho. What remains, are his works, the product of a talented author. A Farewell to Arms is the story of Frederic Henry, an American, driving an ambulance for the Italian Army during World War I. The novel takes us through Frederic's experiences in war and his love affair with Catherine Barkley, an American nurse in Italy. The novel starts in the northern mountains of Italy at the beginn... Free Essays on A Farewell to Arms HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s A Farewell to Arms In Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s A Farewell to Arms Fredrick HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s lust eventually turns to love for Catherine Barkley. Fredrick Henry is an American who is studying architecture in Rome when WWI starts. He joins the Italian army and becomes an officer in charge of overseeing the ambulances in a small town a few miles from the front. He likes to drink rather heavily with the other officers and goes with them to the local bordello. Him and his friend Rinaldi often talk about girls and the women of the bordello. Ã¢â¬Å"Here now we have beautiful girls. New girls never been to the front beforeÃ¢â¬ (11). Henry is happy with his flings and does not think much about them except that they are fun. Rinaldi meets two new women, two English nurses at the hospital and have just arrived to the town. Rinaldi takes Henry to meet the two nurses. Henry then meets Catherine Barkley and at first is only interested in her physically like he is with the other girls. When he goes the next couple of afternoons to see her he acts like he is playing a game. One visit he tries to kiss her and gets slapped for it but this only worked to his advantage. Ã¢â¬Å"I was angry and yet certain, seeing it all ahead like the moves in a chess gameÃ¢â¬ (26). He plays it off and is able to finally get a kiss from her.... Free Essays on A Farewell to Arms A Farewell To Arms All fiction is autobiographical, no matter how obscure from the author's experience it may be, marks of their life can be detected in any of their tales. A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway is based largely on Hemingway's own personal experiences. The main character of the novel, Frederic Henry, experiences many of the same situations that Hemingway lived. Some of these similarities are exact, while some are less similar, and some events have a completely different outcome. Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. Hemingway worked as a reporter for the Kansas City Star after graduating from high school in 1917. During World War I, he served as an ambulance driver in the Italian infantry and was wounded just before his 19th birthday. Hospitalized, Hemingway fell in love with an older nurse. Later, while working in Paris as a correspondent for the Toronto Star, he became involved with the expatriate literary and artistic circle surrounding Gertrude Stein. During the Spanish Civil War, Hemingway served as a correspondent on the loyalist side. He fought in World War II and then settled in Cuba in 1945. In 1954, Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. After his expulsion from Cuba by the Castro regime, he moved to Idaho. In his life, Hemingway married four times and wrote numerous essays, short stories and novels. The effects of Hemingway's lifelong depressions, illnesses and accidents caught up with him. In July 1961, he committed suicide in Ketchum, Idaho. What remains, are his works, the product of a talented author. A Farewell to Arms is the story of Frederic Henry, an American, driving an ambulance for the Italian Army during World War I. The novel takes us through Frederic's experiences in war and his love affair with Catherine Barkley, an American nurse in Italy. The novel starts in the northern mountains of Italy at the beginning of World War I.... Free Essays on A Farewell To Arms The Leaf Of Life In the beginning of Ã¢â¬Å"A Farewell To ArmsÃ¢â¬ a scene of a nice, peaceful summer is presented. Questions such as what year?, what village?, what river?, and what mountain? are drawn from the first few sentences. Imagery is further displayed with words such as Ã¢â¬Å"blueÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"clearÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"swiftlyÃ¢â¬ to provide a peaceful, flowing scene of nature. Simple words and sentences contribute to this mood. Ã¢â¬Å"TheÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ are repeated often, except Ã¢â¬Å"theÃ¢â¬ was omitted from in front of leaves in the fourth sentence to provide a sense of change. Leaves fall as the soldiers walk by and all else seems to change with these events. Switching from a bright summer to a darkening season serves as a foreshadowing of the upcoming problems of war. Diction changes as the chapter progresses to words such as Ã¢â¬Å"darkÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"brownÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"muddyÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"grayÃ¢â¬ . The river started clear and blue, but has now become dark and muddy. This symbolizes the emotions of the people as the troops march and fight. Progressing seasons of nature symbolize the progressing sadness of the people also. As summer leaves and autumn comes mud is splashed over everything and covers the bright beauty of it all. Even the muddy capes of soldiers show how weary and bogged down they are. Ã¢â¬Å"Six months gone with childÃ¢â¬ is an example of metonymy used to show how weary and vulnerable the troops are. Terms such as Ã¢â¬Å"motor carÃ¢â¬ suggest that the time period is around the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. Mentioning of a King rules out the place being the United States. Still many questions go unanswered making the reader want to read farther (which battle?, which King?) Ã¢â¬Å"Winter and permanent rainÃ¢â¬ bring dreary times and cholera makes these times worse. There is a small chance of hope since only seven thousand troops died. This is ironic because seven thousand is usually thought of as a lot; however, Hemingway wants readers to understand this is small compared to the...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Critical thinking - Essay Example persecuted for the sake of Christ, for they shall inherit the Kingdom.Ã¢â¬ In this case, the bible also sees violence (persecution) as a natural think which people should tolerate. ArjunaÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of his enemies as fathers, sons, brothers, teachers etc can be applied in my day to day existence because I always encounter things in my life that may seem as if I am fighting against my subconscious mind. In order to do what is right, I have to confront the wrong things even if it involves fighting against my negative side and those of my own people. In places such as long lines in the market and in jams, I will always fight against those negative thoughts that tell me to overtake others in the line, and it makes me to tolerate the long lines and become patient. Plato thinks that public opinion should not determine how we behave. We should not worry about public opinion but about how we behave. According to Plato, public opinion should only be used to derive wise and expert advice and not to be used to determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. One of the values that Socrates values more than life is obeying the law (Kraut 1984). Socrates considered whether it was just or unjust for him to escape, not what people are saying. If I were Crito, I would argue that although it is unjust to leave prison, the moral value of taking care of family should be precedent over any law; being accused by the state unjustly was by itself against that moral value. So Socrates should have fought against that injustice by leaving the prison. According to Jesus, the purpose of good conduct is for God and others to see. Being good enables people to be light of the world and salt of the earth. This means that being good sets a good example for others to emulate and makes one to be accepted in the society and have a good image in the public. According to my experience, being good enables me to gain respect from people. Whenever I did good things in the past, people congratulated me and gave me
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Principles of Macroecomomics - Essay Example Unemployment can be measured by the claimant count or the standardized ILO unemployment measure. (Abel, 2010) Unemployment can be classified into two broad categories: Equilibrium unemployment and Disequilibrium unemployment. When Aggregate Demand for Labor (ADL) equals Aggregate Supply of Labor (ASL) at market wage rate, the labor market is said to be in equilibrium. The difference between the ASL and the labor force is known as equilibrium unemployment or the natural rate of unemployment. This represents the excess of people looking for work over those actually willing to accept jobs. This can be seen in the graph shown below. (Dornbusch, 2006) As shown in the diagram above, distance AB is the equilibrium unemployment. This type of unemployment may occur due to frictional (irreducible minimum level of unemployment in a dynamic and growing economy), structural (resulting from the mismatch of skills and job opportunities), regional (associated with specific regions often due to the c oncentration of industries in a region) or seasonal (associated with industries or regions where demand for labor is lower at certain times) causes. (Dornbusch, 2006) Disequilibrium unemployment occurs when real wages in the economy are above equilibrium level. This means either the ASL exceeds the ADL or that stickiness in wages prevents wages falling to equilibrium level. The labor market is in a state of disequilibrium, it may be due to real wage (unemployment created when labor wages are deliberately maintained above market clearing level) or demand deficient unemployment (associated with cyclical downturn or recession). (Dornbusch, 2006) Now let us take the consider interest rate. Interest is a rate at which the interest has to be paid by the borrower to the lender apart from the principle amount. Interest rate is a tool of the monetary policy which the government uses in order affect the money supply of the economy in order to achieve macroeconomic objectives. Interest rates a re of two types: real and nominal. Real interest rates are interest rates that are formed in accordance with the rate of inflation. On the other hand nominal interest rate refers to the amount, in money term of interest payable. (Dornbusch, 2006) There are many reasons that may lead to a change in the interest rates. Firstly, it may lead to short-term political gains. Politicians do this in order attain public support; however, it may later lead to problems later on. Deferred consumption may also lead to changes in interest rates. Speculation may lead to changes in the interest rates as well, for instance if consumers think that interest rates are going to rise, the consumers would demand more bonds and thus increase demand for bonds, this would lead to an even higher increase in interest rates. (McEachern, 2008) High levels of unemployment means that the economy is not functioning at its production possibility function, that is, it is underachieving and that it can produce more goo ds but that would require the economy to function more efficiently than it is doing right now. Unemployment imposes private, economic as well as social costs. In that not only does it represent a was of valuable resources but also causes suffering in terms of increased poverty, falling living standards and psychological disorders. Naturally, the costs of unemployment depend on its severity and duration. The costs
Monday, January 27, 2020
The Deprivation Of Liberty Criminology Essay Deprivation of liberty should be regarded as a sanction or measure of last resort and should therefore be provided for only, where the seriousness of the offence would make any other sanction or measure clearly inadequate declares Principle 1 of the Council of Europes Recommendation Concerning Prison Overcrowding and Prison Population Inflation (Council of Europe, 1999). Despite these principles, various sources say that the prison population is on the boost in many parts of the world (U.K. Ministry of Justice, 2008; BJS, 2010; Clear, Cole Reisig, 2008, p.472; U.K. Home Office, 2003). And it is also predicted to increase in the coming years (U.K. Ministry of Justice, 2008; U.K. Home Office, 2003). At the same time it is interesting to note that, the prison population and growth rates vary considerably between different regions of the world, and even among different parts of the same continent (U.K. Home Office, 2003). An analysis of the global prison population rates reveals the following facts. In Africa the median rate for western and central African countries is 35 whereas for Southern African countries it is 231, the Americas the median rate for South American countries is 154 whereas for Caribbean countries it is 324.5, in Asia the median rate for south central Asian countries (mainly the Indian sub-continent) is 53 whereas for (ex-Soviet) central Asian countries it is 184, in Europe the median rate for southern European countries is 95 whereas for central and eastern European countries it is 229, in Oceania (including Australia and New Zealand) the median rate is 102.5 (Walmsley, 2008). These fluctuations and inconsistencies in the prison population rate raise many questions. The question concerning reasons for the increase and inconsistencies in the prison population is one of them. Professor Nicola Lacey argues in one of her paper that, across the developed world today, we see striking contrasts in the level of and quality of imprisonment. In 2006, imprisonment rates per 1, 00,000 of the population ranged from about 36 in Iceland to a staggering 725 in the U.SÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.It is also generally explained that these differences cannot be explained in terms of crime rates, which unlike levels of imprisonment- have risen and fallen over the last 50 years in broadly similar ways in most advanced countries (2008, p. 9). Professor Lacey further says, These variations in punishment can be explained in terms of a differentiated model of varying forms of capitalist economy and democracy. Individualistic liberal economies such as the U.S, the U.K, Australia and New Zealand have over the last 50 years almost universally seen striking increase in the imprisonment rate, while coordinated market economies such as those of northern Europe and Scandinavia have seen, by and l arge, much more stable levels of imprisonment (2008, p. 9). The United States of America to be the nation with highest number of prison population in the world and United Kingdom is placed at seventeenth position where as the two coordinated market economies from Scandinavia, the Denmark and Norway occupies positions 129th and 133rd respectively (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010a). In this backdrop, this essay attempts to analyse the increase in the prison population in late modern liberal market economies. The essay is divided into five parts. After the first part, which obviously is the Introduction, the second part analyses the prison population statistics from two individualistic liberal economies, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. This part also compares the prison population rates with crime rates. In the third part an attempt is made to identify reasons for the variation in the prison population rates in these economies. The fourth part analyses the desirability of stemming this upward trend in prison population and last part includes conclusion with few suggestions for lessening the prison population. In the following part, prison population rates of the two liberal market economies, i.e. the US and the U.K are analysed and then these rates are compared with crime rates. Prison Population in the U.S- At present, the United States imprisonment rates are now almost five times higher than the historical norm prevailing throughout most of the twentieth century, and they are three to five times higher than in other Western democracies (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 307). Contrary to the earlier views that the prison population was too less in the US, the increased population helped the US policy makers to have a broad consensus that Prison Population is too large. Many policy makers are also convinced, that the current system is no longer affordable due to pressing fiscal demands (Clear Austin, 2009, pp. 307- 308). The U.S. rate of incarceration of 702 inmates per 100,000 populations represents not only a record high, but situates this nation as the world leader in its use of imprisonment (Mauer, 2003). The statistics from the United States Bureau of Justice (BJS) also portrays a similar picture. It says that the number of adults in the correctional population has been increasing in the US (BJS, 2010). According to BJS statistics the population under correctional supervision reached a staggering 7.3 million in the year 2008. This is 3.2% of all U.S. adult residents. In other words it can be stated that 1 out of every 31 adults in U.S is under correctional supervision (BJS, 2010). The total prison population that was 3,715,800 in the year 1988 in various correctional supervision centres reached a total of 7,308,200 by 2008 (BJS, 2010). The following table illustrate the details of prison population from 1992 to 2007. Table 1. Prison population in the US Year Total prison population Prison population out of 1,00,000 of the total population 1992 1,295,150 (505) 1995 1,585,586 (600) 1998 1,816,931 (669) 2001 1,961,247 (685) 2004 2,135,335 (723) 2007 2,298,041 (758) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010d. The above given statistics shows the total prison population which was 1,295,150 in the year 1992 reached 2,298041 in the year 2007 which is an increase of 77.4% in the prison population. Similarly the number of people in every 100000 of the total national population in prisons was increased by 50% from 1992 to 2007 (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010d). A search for the reasons for such a massive increase in the rates of people confined in prisons requires a search into the crime rates in USA during these years. It is because normally people tend to suppose that an increased crime rate would naturally also lead to an increased prison population rate. While analysing the crime rates in US during this period, the statistics confirm a decline in all the categories of crimes. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) reports show that the crime rates have been falling in U.S ever since 1980s (FBI, 2008; US Census, 2010). The following table shows the pattern of falling crime rate in US. Table 2. Crime rates in USA Year Murder and Non Negligent man slaughter rate Forcible Rape rate Robbery rate Aggravated Assault rate 1992 757.7 9.3 42.8 263.7 1995 684.5 8.2 37.1 220.9 1998 567.6 6.3 34.5 165.5 2001 504.5 5.6 31.8 148.5 2004 463.2 5.5 32.4 136.7 2007 466.9 5.6 30.0 147.6 Source: FBI 2008. The table given above evidently demonstrates that the crime rates have been declining in the USA under all categories. A similar fall can also be observed in other types of crimes, like property crime, burglary, larceny and motor vehicle theft cases (FBI, 2008). A comparative analysis of the rates of prison population and crime rates in the US proves that crime rates play only a minimal role in the increase of prison population rate. Prison Population in the United Kingdom- The United Kingdom is placed at seventeenth position in terms of population in prisons (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010e). The following table illustrate the details of prison population in the United Kingdom from 1992 to 2009. Table 2. Prison Population in the U.K Year Total prison population Prison population out of 1,00,000 of the total population 1992 44,719 (88) 1995 50,962 (99) 1998 65,298 (126) 2001 66,301 (127) 2004 74,657 (141) 2007 80,216 (148) 2008 81,695 (152) 2009 82,893 (155) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010e Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin, 2009. The above given data exhibits an increase of 79.3% in the prison population and 68% increase in the number of prisoners in every 100000 of the total national population from 1992 to 2007. More recently this increase has become more marked: the average prison population has increased by 85% since 1993. Like the US, in UK also the trend show that crime rose steadily from 1981 through to the early 1990s, peaking in 1995. Crime then fell, making 1995 a significant turning point. The fall was substantial until 2004/05. Since then crime has shown little overall change with the exception of a statistically significant reduction of 10 per cent in 2007/08 to mark the lowest ever level since the first results in 1981 (U.K. Home Office, 2008). The population of public sector prisons in England and Wales at the end of March 2008 was 72,651 (HMPS Annual Report and Accounts, 2007-2008). The prison population in England and Wales, including those held in police cells, was at a record high of 81,695 in 2008, while it increased to 82,893 prisoners in 2009 (Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin, 2009). Like the US, in UK also the trend show that crime rose steadily from 1981 to the early 1990s, peaking in 1995. Crime then fell, making 1995 a significant turning point. The fall was substantial until 2004/05. Since then crime has shown little overall change with the exception of a statistically significant reduction of 10 per cent in 2007/08 to mark the lowest ever level since the first results in 1981 (U.K. Home Office, 2008). In UK also two main factors have been identified for the prison population. It is stated Offenders are being imprisoned who previously would have received community penalties; and those who would previously have been sent to prison are being given longer sentences. Between 1991 and 2001, the custody rate for magistrates courts increased from 5% to 16% and use of custody by the Crown Court rose from 46% to 64% (Hough; Jacobson Millie, 2003). The analysis in the preceding section shows a clear increase in the prison population rate both in USA and UK. The next part of this essay is an attempt to find an answer for this question -Reasons for the upward trend of the Prison Population in modern liberal market economies such as the USA and Britain? Scholars working on the area of prison population point out various reasons for its growth. There have much scholarly deliberations on the role of crime rate on the rate of growth of prison population. The main drivers for prison population growth in US and Britain are discussed as follows- Sentencing Policy- Very often sentencing policy of the state is cited as a reason for increased prison population. It is stated, In the 1970s, the prison population grew because the crime rate grew, resulting in greater numbers of people going to prison. In the 1980s, and stretching into the early 1990s, a host of sentencing policies restricted the use of probation as a sentence for felons, causing a substantial increase in the number of people entering prison during a period when crime rates were semi-stable (Blumstein Beck, 2005). It is further stated, After that, legislation that enhanced penalties for felonies greatly increased the average length of prison terms, which led to growing prison populations even as crime rates dropped and the number of people entering prison began to stabilize. The result was a growing backlog of people serving long sentences, who made up a permanent population base upon which the flow into and out of prison was grafted. The point is that the size of the prison populat ion is a matter of penal policy, and over the last thirty-six years, particularly, the United States has built a policy designed to grow prisons (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 312). The assassinations of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King in US 1968, riots and political violence resulted in toughening of criminal justice and penal policy (Downes, 2001). US federal system and California passed laws in 1994 Three strikes and youre out, the strike-able offences included- murder, rape, robbery, arson and assaults. According to Zimrings article Imprisonment Rates New Politics, the three strike system led to nine times increase in the prison population including all of the other 26 three strike laws in US (Zimring, 2001). Penal commentators have tended to identify two factors namely change in climate of political public debates about crime punishment and; change in the legislative framework guidance within which sentences operate (Ashworth Hough, 1996; Dunbar Langdon, 1998). In February, 1993 drove public concern into public panic, the abduction and murder of a young child James Bulger, by two 10 year old boys, shocked England and there was demand to curb the delinquent tendencies of the new generation of ever younger and increasingly persistent offenders (Graham Moore, 2006). The new legislation, the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act, 1994 introduced stiffer penalties for juvenile offenders, including long term detention for 10-13 year olds, similar was done in section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act, 1993. The introduction of three strike sentences in Britain, 1999 for burglars where a third time offender for burglary receives 3 years sentence automatically (Powers of Criminal Co urts (Sentencing) Act 2000; sec-111). These developments resulted in a substantial rise in juvenile custodial population and punitive responses to offending by children and young people (Graham and Moore, 2006). In Britain, theft and motoring offences were common for prisoners serving short sentences: violence, burglary and drugs offences were common for those sentenced for a year or more (Stewart, 2008). Many legal systems through their penal laws prescribe mandatory minimum punishment for various offences. Many appreciate the policy of mandatory sentencing claiming that such policy would reduce crime rates. Many also argue that such policies would provide uniformity in sentencing for similar crimes. But if this mandatory minimum punishment were too long a period in the prison, it would gradually increase the size of the prison population. The Iron Law of Prison Populations states that the size of a prison population is completely determined by two factors: how many people go to prison and how long they stay. If either of these factors changes, the size of the prison population will also change. The corollary to this iron law is equally important: There is no way to change the prison population without changing either the number of people who go to prison or how long they stay there (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 312). Unemployment, Poverty and Prison Population- Is there any nexus between the increasing prison population rates in USA and UK and the economic policies of these states? A possible relationship between unemployment, poverty, crime rate and resulting increase in the prison population rate has been analysed in many studies (Crow, et al, 1989; Box Hale, 1985). Box and Hale says One fairly orthodox view is that rising unemployment leads to crime and this in turn, assuming constant rates of reporting and recording of crimes, arrest, conviction and imprisonment sentences, leads automatically to an increase in prison population. (p. 209). Similarly it is also argued that unemployment contributes to an increase in crime rate and whenever employment schemes have been effectively implemented; these schemes have a containment effect to keep people from trouble (Crow, et al, 1989). Even though it is also contented that the menace of crime cannot be always linked to the subpopulation of the unemployed (Box Hale, 1985, p. 209), it is also ar gued that unemployment certainly is a factor though not in a direct way, but in an indirect and complex way (Crow, et al, 1989). Most commonly in US and to lesser extent in Britain the most influential explanation imputed rising crime and riots to newly jobless marauding underclass (Downes, 2001). Unemployment caused by the recent economic recession also increased the prison population according to some scholars. The disappearance of many secure jobs in the low-skilled or manufacturing sector after the collapse of Fordism led to the creation of a large minority of unemployed or insecurely employed people who were protected by the social welfare system. The economic exclusion of this large group, along with their sense of their own relative deprivation fed both rising crime and a heightened sense of insecurity and demand for punishment among those securely employed (Lacey, 2008, p 10). The concern with the crime and fear of victimisation has grown out of proportion ; fear which typic ally is most focussed on traditional street crimes and crimes allegedly committed by powerless minority groups across Europe and US, as increasing prison population consist of minorities and foreigners (Marshall, 1996). Politics of Tough on Crime- The policy to be tough on crime, tough on the cause of criminal was adopted by Britain from the Americans Democratic Partys approach (Pease, 1997; Ryan, 1999). In the U.K Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦from 1970s on, law and order has become a salient electoral issue; and on Tony Blairs accession to the position of shadow Home Secretary, Labour began to abandon its traditional analysis in favour of a tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime platform (Lacey, 2008, p 10). The situation being this political parties do not have much option except to be tough on crime. In particular the support for strong law and order policies among a growing number of floating median voters led to a situation in which criminal justice policy became highly politicised (Lacey, 2008, p. 10). The sad fact, moreover, is that the size and demographic structure of the prison population suggest that the socially exclusionary effects of the tough on crime part of the criminal policy equation have, in relation to a significa nt group of population systematically undermined the, inclusionary tough on the causes of crime aspiration. The rate of imprisonment has continued inexorably even in a world of declining crime (Lacey, 2008, p 11). New policies formulated by the Crime Disorder Act 1998, inspired from American zero tolerance policing and prosecution led to increase in prison population to approx 75,000 prisoners in 2003 (Downes, 2001; Home office, 2003). The large-scale imprisonment of drug offenders in US also became a major factor in prison population growth (Donzinger, 1996; Blumstein beck, 1999). The punitive response to drugs has been so potent, that drug trafficking lead to longer prison sentences than for homicide (Caplow Simon, 1999). Too many laws and too many crimes- Anthony Gregory, who is a Research Analyst at the Independent Institute, cites a different reason for Americas top rank in prison population. He says that it is because US have too many laws that prevent persons from enjoying their right to liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness (Gregory, 2006). He says, Those who have committed no crime against person or property should be released from the jails and prisons. These include drug offenders, sex workers, those in possession of illegal guns, and anyone else who has hurt and threatened no one, whose only offence was to violate a victimless crime statute (Gregory, 2006). He further adds that As for minor property criminals, justice should be about making the victim whole, not about expensively caging people just to provide jobs for the prison guards, money for the bureaucracy, and talking points for tough-on-crime politicians (Gregory, 2006). It is also noted that the law enforcement oriented approaches in most of the Western Eur ope have caused persons sentenced for drug offences to make up an increased percentage of prison population (Dunkel van Zyl Smit, 2001). Even the use of remand and parole system contributed massively in prison population in both US and Britain. In UK, 2008 there were approximately 12,566 males and 874 females on remand, while only 1424 males and 96 females were held in prison for non-criminal offences (Home Office, 2008). Connecticut Department of Corrections Committee on Prison Overcrowding- In the year 2000, the Department of Corrections in the State of Connecticut constituted a Program Review Committee to study the main factors causing the prison overcrowding problem and the options available to the legislative and executive and judicial branches to control the growth of the inmate population (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The committee report showed most of the causes of prison overcrowding occurred outside the administration and jurisdiction of the Department of Correction and these complex issues and problems cannot be addressed by a single state agency (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The Committee identified five main causes of prison overcrowding- firstly, despite the decrease in arrest and crime rates, the number of offenders in prison or jail continued to increase due to the war on drugs, increased funding for police, increased role of victims and victim advocacy groups in the court process, recidivism and technical violations of probation and parole, harsher penalties for certain types of crimes, and alternative sanction options; secondly, convicted inmates were remaining incarcerated for a greater portion of their court-imposed prison sentences as a result of the shift from an indeterminate to a determinate sentencing structure, elimination of good time, creation of time-served standards for parole eligibility, and the enactment of several truth in sentencing initiatives; thirdly, the aggressive tough on crime approach supported by the legislature and adopted by the executive and judicial branches allows the criminal justice system to narrow its use of discr etion and take a more conservative and less controversial approach to punishment; fourthly, lack of prison beds, especially high security and pre-trial beds, forced Department of Corrections to operate at capacity and; lastly, poor planning and a lack of an accurate population projection and offender needs analysis contributed to the cycle of overcrowding and hampered Department of Corrections efforts to adequately plan for new or expanded facilities (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The concept of private prison also to some extent leads to increase in prison population. Private prison is a place where individuals are physically confined by private parties. Private prison companies enter into contractual arrangements with local, state, or federal governments that commit prisoners and then pay a per diem or monthly rate for each prisoner confined in the facility. Privatization of prisons refers both to the takeover of existing prison facilities by private operators and to the building and operation of new prisons by for-profit by prison companies. Proponents of privately run prisons argue that cost-savings and efficiency of private prisons are advantages over public prisons, even though doubts have been raised regarding the cost effectiveness of private prisons. An important criticism is that private prisons would lead to a market demand for prisoners and efforts by private companies to ensure prison population is on the rise. This may create a lobby of intereste d individuals who would purposely impede the cause of lessening of prison population. The reasons are many. It is more money for the private prisons management if they get more inmates. More number of inmates means more money from the State and the cheap prison labour (Smith, 1993). Desirability of Stemming Prison Overcrowding and Risks involved- One prominent reason for stemming prison overcrowding is that there seems to be little or no nexus between the duration a prisoner spends in the prison and his chances of reformation. Offender do not always reform and refrain from doing a crime after release. Prisoners do not become less likely to commit crimes upon release, increasing the prison release rate seems to have little disadvantage, certainly, some prisoners will commit crimes upon release (Jacobson, 2005, p. 310 311). The conclusion we can draw from this analysis is that the size of the prison population and the amount of crime are related, but not strongly. A tough on crime punishment policy decreases crime rate and provides a smooth functioning of the society and would also increase the efficiency of the market. But at the same time long imprisonment term is not related to the prisoners likelihood of staying crime free. The issue which requires deeper analysis is on the risks involved in increasing release rate and stem ming prison overcrowding. There are obvious advantages of imprisonment. Imprisonment is not totally undesirable; rather, imprisonment achieves most aims of punishment. The theories of punishment, such as the utilitarian, restorative, retributive and reformative justifications, suggest aims of punishment and look at punishment as a means to a definite end. These theories and justifications influence the penal policy of the state. Jeremy Bentham the prominent utilitarian says, The business of the government is to promote the happiness of the society, by punishment and rewarding , .. In proportion as an act tends to disturb that happiness, in proportion as the tendency of its pernicious will be the demand it creates for punishment (Bentham, 1789, Chapter 1). According to another author, The degree of punishment, and the consequence of a crime, out to be so contrived as to have the greatest possible effect on others, with the least possible pain to the delinquent.. (Baccana, 1809, Chapter 11). Similarly efforts have been made by scholars to analyse the purposes of punishment from an economic perspective. Richard Posner writes, The major function of criminal law in a capitalist society is to prevent people from bypassing the system of voluntary compensated exchange-the market, explicit or implicit- In situations where because transaction costs are low, the market is a more efficient method of allocating resources than forced exchangeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Most of the distinctive doctrines of criminal law can be explained as if the objective of that law were to promote economic efficiency (Posner, 1985, pp 1230-31). Core of Posners argument is that punishment is for market efficiency. Similarly the retributive justification considers that if a punishment is proportionate to the wrong that has been committed by the offender that is justifiable. The gravity of the punishment also needs to be viewed from the victims perspective (Kant, 1887). Crime is a major social problem. If the crime rate in an economy is uncontrolled, it will definitely affect the efficiency of its market. If an investor were given an option, he would definitely invest in that economy where his money would be secure and protected from criminals and mafias (Pyle, 2000). At the same time maintaining of prisoners for a long duration in the prisons is also viewed to be uneconomical (Clear Austin, 2009, p 307). The JFA report, provided ways to reduce prison population in US (Austin, 2007) the time served in prison should be reduced, technical parole and probation violators should not serve time in prison for such behaviour and people convicted for victimless crimes should not be sentenced to state prison as in case of drug offences etc (Austin, 2007, p 23-24). Thus, all these problems can be tackled and prison population can be controlled firstly, by bringing a change in the outlook of the people towards crime and punishment, so that less use of prison, instead use of alternative for prison should be made. A change in the legal and legislative framework of sentences is required, to bring down the custody rates and sentence lengths served by the offenders. Improvement in understanding of the various ranges of non-custodial penalties including the fine among sentences should be imposed (Hough, et al, 2003). In, addition imposition of day fines to be readily applied in US and Britain, as they have been successfully used in countries like Germany, Austria and Sweden to reduce the use of short prison sentences (Scottish Consortium on crime and Criminal Justice, 2005). Conclusion- From proactive and human rights perspective it is always desirable to stem overcrowding. The less likelihood of transformation as result of long term in prisons and continuing a tough on crime policy by the state requires a rethinking about the existing long-term punishment policy. It is suggested that prisoners can serve shorter sentences without triggering an increase in the crime rate. Furthermore, maintaining a large prison population does not necessarily significantly decrease the number of crimes committed (Jacobson, 2005, p. 311). According to Jacobson any solution to the problem of mass incarceration must begin with two points, firstly, programmatic tinkering has not reduced the prison population to date, and it will never have much effect, even under the most optimistic assumptions and secondly, to overcome mass incarceration requires that we incarcerate fewer people, reduce length of stay for persons placed on probation and parole and make greater use of fines, restitution, and community service in lieu of probation (Jacobson, 2005). If mass imprisonment is the problem then the solution is to change the laws that send people to prison and sometimes keep them there for lengthy terms, that is reducing the number going in, their length of stay, or both (Jacobson, 2005, p 316). Provision should be made for an appropriate array of community sanctions and measures, possibly graded in terms of relative severity; prosecutors and judges should be prompted to use them as widely as possible (Council of Europe, 1999, principle 2). It is also suggested that States should consider the possibility of decriminalising certain types of offence or reclassifying them so that they do not attract penalties entailing the deprivation of liberty (Council of Europe, 1999, principle 4). Measures aimed at combating prison overcrowding and reducing the size of the prison population need to be embedded in a coherent and rational crime policy directed towards the prevention of crime and criminal behaviour, effective law enforcement, public safety and protection, the in dividualisation of sanctions and measures and the social reintegration of offenders (Council of Europe, 1999).
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Prime Time for Education It would be a wonderful world if we could give our children a better future. Why not start by filling their little minds with a handful of education at an early age? In Arizona it has been a controversial subject on whether to fund full day kindergarten. In my research on the subject and the experience I have had with my own children full day kindergarten is all around a wonderful idea. There are benefits for children, parents and teachers. Benjamin Franklin once said, Ã¢â¬Å"An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.Ã¢â¬ First let us discuss the benefits for children. Students have the potential to experience their greatest academic growth in kindergarten. In full day kindergarten research shows greater progress in literacy, math, social skills, and general learning skills. It is the year to format their attitudes toward learning. Research analyzing 23 studies of full day kindergarten indicated that Ã¢â¬Å"overall, students who attend full day kindergartens manifest significantly greater achievement than students who attend half day kindergartenÃ¢â¬ . As stated here, academically it is an excellent idea. Another benefit is for the lower-income families to enroll children in a higher quality early education program that might otherwise be affordable in the private market. In 1997, the Minneapolis school district began testing kindergartners. Those studies found that many students from low-income families began school not knowing the names of letters, how to count from one to 20, and some could not even recognize colors and shapes. The testing showed a significant gap between students of color and their white classmates. Since the Minneapolis School district started offering full day kindergarten they have seen an overwhelming difference in the learning of the low-income, African-American, American Indians, and Latinos. For example, the number of letter sounds acquired by full day students was 30% higher than their half day peers (Pugmire, 2002). Looking at these studies and knowing we have many low-income and diverse races in the Mesa School District there is a wonderful benefit to su pport full day kindergarten. For those students that need more time and support, giving it to them in the front end, will save a great deal of remediation and less money in the back end. Finally some benefits for our teachers; include more time to spend with students individually and in small groups (Full Day Kindergarten, n.d.), more time to communicate with parents, and more time to assess students and individualize instruction to their needs and interests (Full Day Kindergarten, n.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
In a world where the basic fundamentals of business have to constantly change, it becomes essential for any company implement a thorough and effective form of management. Throughout history most civilized societies have constantly searched for ways to better improve the quality of business by improving management. The most common emerging management concept is form of management known as Total Quality Management (TQM). This is a structured system for satisfying internal and external customers as well as suppliers, by improving the production quality of goods and services. Some of the major points of TQM are the creation of a constant sea of purpose for the improvement of product and service; other aspects of TQM include the constant improval and continual process planning. This paper will analyze three different sectors of management and the manner in which each utilizes TQM, including: 1) an organization from the customer service industry (Burger King), 2) a non-profit organization (a public school), and 3) the government (a detective unit within a police municipality). Finally, it will access the importance of leadership within each of the three selected industries as it relates to quality. In order for any company or corporation to maintain a competitive edge they must still follow the basic fundamentals of management which are divided in four major parts. The most common guidelines managers use to ensure effectiveness: 1) planning, 2) organizing, 3) leading, and 4) controlling. Each one of these functions help uphold the quality of any business, however, there are many other functions that also play an intricate part of being successful. Some of these other functions were derived by trial and error, others were imposed because we have become more of a technical society with higher expectations. These other functions include budgeting, evaluating, reporting, and staffing. Although not all of these are the foundations of management, there just as vital to a management team as the four basic others. The first function of management is Planning. In this phase, managers set the tone for all activities run or controlled by the company or business. In the future, this aspect will change in accordance with the philosophy behind TQM. Managers will need to adopt a new philosophy, and end the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. With so many competitors in every industry, a manager will have to recognize that other elements of planning are important for the business to survive. Customer service and the quality of product or service will come to the forefront of customer choice. A cheap product will not be able to survive in this rapidly changing business environment. Organization is another extremely important aspect of the necessary managerial skills for any manager desiring guaranteed success. Organization can be as simple as instituting training at work in a pattern that overlooks no single employee. A good manager cannot expect employees to train themselves or improve their work manners without additional help. A strong organized training program is sure to enhance even the most successful company. A strong Leadership team is another necessary important aspect for business in the 21st century. This leadership team must be instituted and adopted without fear at the workplace. Employees who fear their supervisors simply cannot evolve into successful employees interested in the growth of their company. A strong leadership team will effectively manage the business with the overall objective of accomplishing the larger goals of the organization. Leadership is also represented by effective communication with other members of the team, the establishment of high standards, and the promotion of continuing education in the line of business. Maintaining Effective Control over the business is also a highly regarded area in effective management. Effective control can be exuberant in a number of ways. One of these ways in accordance with the TQM model is to eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce, which can be a cause of negative staff response. The system if annual raises or merit systems should also be eliminated and raises should be given based on performance and quality of workmanship. Numerical quotas for the work force and numerical goals for management should be eliminated as well. The role of TQM in the customer service industry is very important; Burger King, a long-standing successful competitor in this market, owes much of its economic success to its' pricing methodology, sales preservation and enhancement, and ability to compete within the unique structure of the fast food market. Since the market in which Burger King competes is characterized by intense competition with other international fast food chains, regional chains, local independent restaurants, convenience stores, grocery store delicatessens and food counters, the ability to effectively plan plays an crucial role. Organization at Burger King is also key, because the fast food market structure can be best described as a monopolistic market structure in which many firms produce similar goods or services but each firm maintains some independent control of its own price. The TQM element of leadership is important to Burger King because the barriers to entry in this type of market are fairly low and new competitors can easily enter the market. Burger King has taken several steps to place themselves in an optimal competitive position. For example, Burger King's non-pricing strategy has been to invest significant financial resources to advertise products, differentiate themselves from the competition, build brand image, and improve brand loyalty. Although such advertising is fairly expensive, Burger King has used this non-price competitive tool to build brand loyalty and change consumer determinants of demand. Burger King has protected their brand by actively pursuing infringers and protecting their trademarked names. Burger King also uses a pricing strategy to preserve and enhance sales. All of its' prices remain competitive with those of competitors, and Burger King will also implement sales or specially priced items occasionally to attract more consumers. Additionally, Burger King routinely tests and places on the menu new items, in accordance with fast food industry trends and consumer surveys. In this way, Burger King has maintained effectively the phase of control in the TQM model. A non-profit organization, such as a public school, also implements the elements of TQM by means of the principal's actions. For example, the leader in a learning organization implements the aspect of planning by developing and administering policies that provide a safe school environment and establish operational plans and processes to accomplish strategic goals. The principal must be organized, because the major sources of fiscal and nonphysical resources for the school including business and community resources must be analyzed and identified. Additionally, the financial and material assets must be managed, as well as capital goods and services, allocating resources according to district or school priorities. Policy development includes an efficient budget planning process that is driven by district and school priorities and involves the staff and community. A strong leadership quality in the public school system is the ability to identify and organize resources to achieve curricular and instructional goals. Research indicates that the process of planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating a district budget must be analyzed, and techniques and organizational skills necessary to lead and manage a complex and diverse organization must be demonstrated. Furthermore, policy development includes the planning and scheduling of one's own and others' work so that resources are used appropriately, and short- and long-term priorities and goals are met. A government agency, such as the detective task force located within a police municipality is also an organization in which TQM is very important. For example, the DNA analysis conducted by a detective can mean the difference between an individual incorrectly serving a life sentence on death row, convicted as a result of forensic hair analysis. Just within the past few years, the rise of DNA testing has revealed enormous failings in the microscopic hair analysis that was considered reliable a generation ago. The use of forensic DNA analysis in solving crime is proving to be as revolutionary as the introduction of fingerprint evidence in court more than a century ago, so planning and organization in such an environment is essential to eliminating false convictions. The value of DNA to police investigations is enormous, and leadership and control in such an investigation are very important. For example, biological samples collected from a crime scene can either link a suspect to the scene, or rule the suspect out as the donor of the DNA. Evidence from different crime scenes can be compared to link the same perpetrator to multiple offenses, whether the crimes took place locally, across the country, or halfway around the world. Thus, as indicated above, TQM is a business model that affects virtually every type of business sector. The importance of leadership as it relates to quality can be seen in each of the above-mentioned sectors. Leadership is important at Burger King, because the fast food industry is so competitive that strong leadership is the difference between success and failure. In a non-profit organization such as a public school, the quality of education that the students will receive while attending that school is directly related to the type of leadership exhibited by the principal. Finally, in a government organization such as a police department, leadership can mean the difference between an incorrect guilty verdict or letting a criminal go free. Therefore, every type of business would be well advised to implement a TQM model in their management style.
Friday, January 3, 2020
When beginning the psychology major, I was unsure of what my long term educational and professional goals were. Now that I am in my senior year, I am still not positive about my path overall path. However, I do have a plan that I feel will work perfect for me. I am reaching a time in my life where I will be financial stable, be married, have a partner to share responsibilities, and have the knowledge to be the best parent possible. I think it is important for one parent to be home before the children enter preschool. Once the children are entered in school, I feel it would be a good time for me to either go back to school or choose a career I can achieve with my bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree. If I were to go back to school, it would most likely be to obtain a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree for counseling. I am very interested in Central Washington UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Master Degree in Applied Behavior Analysis. 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